Resource-Efficient Technologies http://reffit.tech/index.php/res-eff <p><em>Resource-Efficient Technologies</em>&nbsp;is an international journal that publishes research and review articles, short communications, commentaries, and book reviews in the ever broadening field of sustainable and resource-efficient technologies, which reduce energy and materials consumption, reduce or completely eliminate toxic waste, develop closed-loop recycling technologies with the purpose of sustainable, economically efficient and socially responsible use of all natural resources and man-made product</p> Tomsk Polytechnic University en-US Resource-Efficient Technologies 2405-6537 Peculiarities of electromagnetic field oscillations of a charged particle rotating about a conductive ball http://reffit.tech/index.php/res-eff/article/view/195 <p>Abstract. The paper investigates some characteristic features of the electromagnetic field of a relativistic charged particle that uniformly rotates about a conductive ball in its equatorial plane. It is assumed that the braking of the particle due to radiation is compensated by an external influence (e.g. the electric force) that compels the particle to turn uniformly in a circle. The magnetic permittivity of the ball is assumed to be one. The work is based on the corresponding exact analytic solutions of Maxwell’s equations. The generalized Drude-Lorentz-Sommerfeld formula for the dielectric function of the conductive ball is used in numerical calculations.&nbsp;It is shown that localized oscillations of a high-amplitude electromagnetic field can be generated at a given harmonic inside the ball at a certain (resonant) particle rotation frequency at a small distance from the surface of the ball. Herewith, at large distances from the trajectory of the particle, these localized oscillations are accompanied by intense radiation at the same harmonic, which is many times more intense than the analogous radiation in the case when the ball is absent.&nbsp;The possibilities of using this phenomenon to develop sources of quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic radiation in the range from giga- to terra hertz frequencies are discussed.</p> A.H. Mkrtchyan L.Sh. Grigoryan H.F. Khachatryan M.L. Grigoryan A.V. Sargsyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-08-27 2018-08-27 3 1 6 10.18799/24056537/2018/3/195 Cleaning and sputtering using planar acoustoplasma magnetron http://reffit.tech/index.php/res-eff/article/view/197 <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Абстрактные. </span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">В статье описаны полученные экспериментальные результаты для планарного акустоплазменного магнетрона. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Небольшой радиус анодной петли позволяет фокусировать и ускорять ионный компонент распыленного материала. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">В качестве буферного газа использовали аргон. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Сравниваются характеристики магнетрона в случае постоянного тока и в акустоплазменном режиме (AP) (с модулированным током, содержащим постоянные и переменные компоненты). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Скорость распыления в режиме AP увеличивается. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Для медного катода давление газа составляло &lt;1 Па и плотность тока порядка 100 мА / см </span></span><sup><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">2</span></span></sup><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">с увеличением расстояния от анода до осажденного субстрата от 2 до 4 см в случае подачи постоянного тока скорость осаждения снижается в 3,3 раза (от 17 до 5 нм / с), в акустоплазменном режиме - в 2 раза (от 13 до 6,4 нм / с). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Для расстояния анода-подложки 4 см прирост скорости осаждения в режиме AP по сравнению с DC составляет 1,2-1,5 раза. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Измерялись зависимости ионного и электронного токов на подложке от разных параметров разряда. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Исследование основано на схеме с двумя потенциальными сетками с фиксированными и переменными потенциалами. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Показана возможность формирования кольцевого пароплазменного потока быстрых частиц.&nbsp;</span></span></p> A.S. Abrahamyan A.H. Mkrtchyan V.V. Nalbandyan H.T. Hovhannisyan R.Yu. Chilingaryan A.S. Hakobyan P.H. Mossoyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-08-27 2018-08-27 3 7 13 10.18799/24056537/2018/3/197 Potentialities of fast ion neutralization at grazing incidence angles from crystal surfaces for development of new generation of uv laser sources http://reffit.tech/index.php/res-eff/article/view/198 <p><strong>Abstract.</strong> The paper considers processes of electron capture by fast ions scattered from metal surfaces at grazing incidence angles. It discusses the possibilities of excitation of high atomic levels in neutralization process and laser generation. The Doppler compression effect for ion beams is shown to be rather essential for laser generation in the ion energy range of several tens keV. It is shown that the four-level laser generation scheme is the preferable one. The values of critical currents for laser generation are evaluated. The experimental setup for ion beam neutralization is observed. The experimental results on nitrogen ion beam neutralization on silicon (001) wafers at grazing incident angles are presented. The dependence of the neutralization coefficient on the grazing incidence angle is measured, a good coincidence between peak maximum and Lindhard angles is demonstrated. It is shown that in case of neutralization without special vacuum surface cleaning the neutralization coefficient makes approximately 30% for ion energy of 40 keV. The one-electron resonant neutralization to nitrogen <sup>2</sup>P<sub>1/2</sub>, <sup>2</sup>D<sub>3/2</sub>, <sup>4</sup>S<sub>3/2 </sub>atomic terms is discussed. The mechanism of resonant coherent excitation of fast nitrogen atoms in front of a Si (001) surface is observed, the resonant energy being estimated about 70 keV.</p> P.A. Aleksandrov S.S. Fanchenko S.G. Schemardov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-08-27 2018-08-27 3 14 18 10.18799/24056537/2018/3/198 Interaction of metals and alloys with gas media under spark discharges http://reffit.tech/index.php/res-eff/article/view/199 <p>The paper studies the penetration of nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, argon and krypton into copper, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, aluminum, iron and different steels under the action of spark discharges in various media based on radioactive indicators using step-by-step radiometric analysis, macro-, micro-, electron-microscopy and activation autoradiography, Mössbauer and Auger spectroscopy, secondary ion-ionic emission, X-ray diffraction and X-ray microanalysis.&nbsp;The study describes distribution features of penetrating atoms and their concentration profiles. Phase composition of near-surface layers is also determined. It is shown that supersaturated solid solutions of iron in copper and copper in iron are formed during simultaneous iron and oxygen penetration in copper and spinel (Fe<sub>6</sub>Cu<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>)<sub>4</sub>. Diffusion of iron and carbon results in supersaturated solid solutions of iron and carbon in copper, copper and carbon in iron, graphite and cementite. Inert gases and nitrogen form solid solutions with copper.&nbsp;Phase composition of near-surface layers in Fe is determined. Iron dioxide FeO, a carbon solid solution in iron with fcc lattice γ-Fe, tetragonal martensite and cementite, two iron (III) hydroxide FeOOH modifications, a supersaturated solid solution of nitrogen and nitride Fe<sub>4</sub>N, solid solutions of inert gases in iron are formed in the diffusion zone.&nbsp;Simultaneous interaction of molybdenum with iron (the anode material) and various gases results in the formation of substitutional solid solutions of iron in molybdenum and molybdenum in iron, a small amount of interstitial solid solutions of nitrogen and carbon in molybdenum and nitrogen in iron, interstitial phases: molybdenum nitrides and carbides and traces of nitrides of iron (Fe<sub>4</sub>N, Fe<sub>2</sub>N) and Fe<sub>1,9</sub>Mo (λ) phases in the form of needles.&nbsp;Treatment of nickel with a nickel anode in the nitrogen medium promotes formation of a solid solution of nitrogen and nitride Ni<sub>3</sub>N in the matrix with preserved hexagonal symmetry and lattice parameters that are characteristic of this phase under equilibrium conditions. Atoms of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and argon are present in the interstitial solid solutions in treatment of nickel in ambient air; however, oxides are not found even on the surface (in the layer ~200 nm).&nbsp;Interaction of titanium with atmospheric gases leads to formation of a solid solution of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and argon in titanium and titanium nitride Ti<sub>2</sub>N (ε). Simultaneous saturation of the titanium surface with nickel and nitrogen in the interaction zone causes formation of phases in the following order: nickel nitride; a solid solution of nitrogen and titanium in nickel and a solid solution of both alloying elements in titanium.</p> D.V. Mironov V.M. Mironov V.F. Mazanko D.S. Gertsriken P.V. Peretyatku ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-08-28 2018-08-28 3 19 36 10.18799/24056537/2018/3/199